Volume 4, Issue 2, June 2018, Page: 42-59
Study on Some Mechanical and Chemical Properties of Agro Residual Briquettes Produced from Date Palm Fronds
Ayman Hafiz Amer Eissa, Agriculture Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Menoufia University, Shibin El-Kom, Egypt
Abdul Rahman Othman Alghannam, Bio-Environmental Engineering Dept., Natural Resources and Environmental Research Institute, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Received: Dec. 8, 2017;       Accepted: Feb. 11, 2018;       Published: Apr. 23, 2018
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijsqa.20180402.13      View  1833      Downloads  119
The agricultural crop residuals are considered one of the most important problems, which face the environmental life and farmers in the world. A study was carried out to evaluate the physical characteristics of chopped date palm stalks (fronds and leaflets). These properties are necessary to apply normal design procedures such as pneumatic conveying, fluidization, drying, and combustion. The mechanical treatment by cutting, crushing or chopping and briquetting processes are the primary step and the suitable solution for solving this problem and recycling these residuals to be transformed into useful products. So the aim of the present work to get a high quality for agriculture residues such as date palm stalks (Fronds), date palm leaflets briquettes. The results obtained from measuring the mechanical properties (average shear and compressive strength) for date palm stalks at different moisture content (12.63, 33.21 and 60.54%) was (6.4, 4.7 and 3.21MPa) and (3.8, 3.18 and 2.86MPa) respectively. The modulus of elasticity and toughness were evaluated as a function of moisture content. As the moisture content of the stalk regions increased the modulus of elasticity and toughness decreased indicating a reduction in the brittleness of the stalk regions. Chopped date palm stalks (Palm fronds), date palm leaflets having moisture content (8, 10 and 12%) and (8, 10 and 12.8% w.b.) were dandified into briquettes without binder and with binder (Urea-Formaldehyde) using a screw press machine. Quality properties for briquettes were durability, compression ratio hardness, bulk density, compression ratio, resiliency, water resistance and gases emission. The optimum quality properties found for briquettes at 8% moisture content and without binder. Where the highest compression stress and durability were 8.95, 10.39 MPa and 97.06%, 93.64% for date palm stalks (Palm fronds), date palm leaflets briquettes, respectively. The CO and CO2 emissions for date palm stalks (Fronds), date palm leaflets briquettes were less than these for loose residuals.
Residues, Date Palm Stalks, Physical Properties, Chopper, Briquetting, Quality Properties
To cite this article
Ayman Hafiz Amer Eissa, Abdul Rahman Othman Alghannam, Study on Some Mechanical and Chemical Properties of Agro Residual Briquettes Produced from Date Palm Fronds, International Journal of Science and Qualitative Analysis. Vol. 4, No. 2, 2018, pp. 42-59. doi: 10.11648/j.ijsqa.20180402.13
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Agoudjil, B., Benchabaneb, A., Boudennec, A., Ibos, L. and Fois, M. (2011). Renewable Materials to Reduce Building Heat Loss: Characterization of Date Palm Wood. Energy Build. 43: 491–497.
Al-Sulaiman F. A. (2003). Date palm fiber reinforced composite as a new insulating material, International Journal of Energy Research 27 (14):1293–1297.
Amer Eissa A. H.; Gomaa A. H.; Baiomy M. H. and Ibrahim A. A. (2008). Physical and Mechanical characteristics for some agricultural residues. Misr j. Ag. Eng., 25 (1): 121-146.
ASAE Standards (2003) American Society of Agricultural Engineers. "Standards Engineers practices Data".
Baliga, M. S., Baliga, B. R. V., Kandathil, S. M., Bhat, H. P., Vayalil, P. K., 2011. A review of the chemistry and pharmacology of the date fruits (Phoenix dactylifera L.). Food Res. Int. 44, 1812–1822.
Chattopadhyay, P. S.; and K. P. Pandy (1999). "Mechanical properties of sorghum stalk in relation quasi-static deformation". J. Agri. Eng. Res. 73: 199-206.
Debdoubi, A.; A. El-amarti.; and E. Colacio (2005) "Production of fuel briquettes from esparto partially pyrolyzed". Energy Conversion and Management, 46, 1877–1884.
Demirbas, A. (2000) "Conversion of biomass to a pyrolytic oil for blending gasoline as an alternative fuel in internal combustion engines". Energy Sources; 23:553–62.
Dubey, A. K.; P. Chandra.; D. Padhee.; and S. Gangil (2007) "Energy from Cotton Stalks and other Crop Residues". Cotton Advisory Board, 2007.
FAOSTAT (2011). On-Line Statistical Database of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Available online at http://apps.fao.org.
Fasina, O. O. (2008). "Physical properties of peanut hull pellets." Bioresource Technology, 99, 1259–1266.
Gibiiz, B.; and U. S. Kucukbayrak (1996) "Briquetting of Istanbul-Kemerburgaz lignite of Turkey". Fuel Processing Technology, 47, 111–118.
Jha, S. K.; A. Singh.; and A. Kumar (2008) "Physical characteristics of compressed cotton stalks". Biomass Engineering, 99, 205–210.
Mc Mullen, J.; O. O. Fasina.; C. W. Wood.; and Y. Feng (2005). "Storage and handling characteristics of pellets from poultry litter". Applied Engineering in Agriculture, 21, 645–51.
Nalladurai, K.; and R. V. Morey (2009) "Factors affecting strength and durability of densified biomass products". Biomass and Bio-energy, 33, 337–359.
Nalladurai, K.; and R. V. Morey (2010) "Natural binders and solid bridge type binding mechanisms in briquettes and pellets made from corn Stover and switchgrass". Bioresource Technology, 101, 1082–1090.
Panwar, V.; B. Prasad.; and K. L. Wasewar (2011) "Biomass Residue Briquetting and Characterization". J. Energy Eng.-ASCE 137, 108–114.
Shaban, D. A.; and O. M. Sawan (2010). "The Utilization of Agricultural Waste as One of the Environmental Issues in Egypt (A Case Study)". Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 6 (8): 1116-1124.
Stahl, M.; K. Granstrom.; J. Berghel.; and R. Renstrom (2004). "Industrial processes for biomass drying and their effects on the quality properties of wood pellets." Biomass and Bioenergy 27, 621–628.
Werther, J.; M. Saenger.; E. U. Hartge.; T. Ogada.; and Z. Siagi (2000) "Combustion of agricultural residues". Prog. Energ. Combust Sci, 26, 1–27.
Yamnan, S.; M. SahanŞahan.; H. Haykiri-Açma.; K. Şeşen.; and S. Küçükbayrak (2001) "Fuel briquettes from biomass-lignite blends". Fuel Process Technol, 72, 1–8.
Yassine El may, Mejdi Jeguirim, Sophie Dorge, Gwenaelle Trouvé, Rachid Said (2013) Experimental investigation on gaseous emissions from the combustion of date palm residues in laboratory scale furnace Original. Bioresource Technology, Volume 131, Page 94.
Browse journals by subject